Original Research

Parallelisms and revelatory concepts of the Johannine Prologue in Greco-Roman context

Benno Zuiddam
HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies | Vol 72, No 3 | a3115 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i3.3115 | © 2016 Benno Zuiddam | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 14 July 2015 | Published: 31 May 2016

About the author(s)

Benno Zuiddam, Theological Faculty, North West University, South Africa


This article builds on the increasing recognition of divine communication and God’s plan as a central concept in the prologue to the Fourth gospel. A philological analysis reveals parallel structures with an emphasis on divine communication in which the Logos takes a central part. These should be understood within the context of this gospel, but have their roots in the Old Testament. The Septuagint offers parallel concepts, particularly in its wisdom literature. Apart from these derivative parallels, the revelatory concepts and terminology involved in John 1:1–18, also find functional parallels in the historical environment of the fourth gospel. They share similarities with the role of Apollo Phoebus in the traditionally assigned geographical context of the region of Ephesus in Asia Minor. This functional parallelism served the reception of John’s biblical message in a Greco-Roman cultural setting.

Keywords: John's Gospel; Apollo Phoebus; Logos; Revelation; Ephesus


John's Gospel; Apollo Phoebus; Logos; Revelation; Ephesus


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