Original Research

Brotherhood beyond the Ummah: Theological and socio-cultural perspectives to potential of coexistence

Serhat Kucuk, Ozcan Gungor
HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies | Vol 77, No 4 | a6745 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/hts.v77i4.6745 | © 2021 Serhat Küçük, Özcan Güngör | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 15 April 2021 | Published: 28 October 2021

About the author(s)

Serhat Kucuk, Department of Turkish and Social Sciences Education, Faculty of Education, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, Turkey
Ozcan Gungor, Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Faculty of İslamic Studies, Ankara Y. Beyazit University, Ankara, Turkey


When we look at a single example in the comparison of the West and the East, the ban on minarets in Switzerland or the absence of any churches in Saudi Arabia leads to incorrect conclusions. Such ideological selectivity hinders the model of coexistence. In this research study, we mentioned the possibilities, needs and minimum requirements of a coexistence model beyond the Ummah. We perform firstly (1) the description or diagnosis of the given situation, namely the determination of the problem: the political or historical, theological and cultural sources, and origin of the problem; (2) the expansion of the given situation to the paradigm from the history, the spirit of the times, theological sources and principles; and (3) solution: updating the theological, political and cultural displacements and applying them in the current context.

Contribution: This is the thesis of this paper: humans have enough theological, political, cultural and educational possibilities for a new global Convivencia for being able to realise ‘together and common living’. Humans have the theological, political and cultural opportunities to realise a new global Convivencia ‘living together even if not in unison’ for the future.


coexistence; Islam; Ummah; Western civilization; comparative perspectives


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