Original Research

‘There is no concern of prohibition against their trade’: A responsum by Rashbatz on the trade in monkeys practiced by Algerian Jews in the middle ages

Abraham O. Shemesh
HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies | Vol 74, No 1 | a4768 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/hts.v74i1.4768 | © 2018 Abraham O. Shemesh | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 11 August 2017 | Published: 10 April 2018

About the author(s)

Abraham O. Shemesh, Department of Israel Heritage, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ariel University, Israel


The current study deals with the responsum of R. Shimon ben Zemah Duran (Rashbatz, Algeria, 15th century), a Jewish halakhic adjudicator, on the trade in monkeys practiced by Algerian Jews in the middle ages. The basis of the discussion concerning the monkey trade is an ancient prohibition of the Mishna’s sages against trading in non-kosher animals. The current study clarifies the halakhic, historical and zoological circumstances underlying the missive sent to Rashbatz. In fact, R. Shimon ben Zemah Duran permitted trading in monkeys. He bases his ruling on ancient sources in rabbinical literature and states that this is not a new issue in the economic life of Algerian Jews and that his family also dealt in the monkey trade.


responsum; Shimon ben Zemah Duran; Rashbatz; rabbinical literature; Algerian Jews; monkeys; medieval trade; Jewish halakha; Medieval trade; barbary monkey


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Crossref Citations

1. A Landscape without Nonhuman Primates? The Case of the Barbary Macaque, Macaca sylvanus, (Linnaeus, 1758) and Its Interaction with Humans throughout Recorded Time
Cecilia Veracini
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doi: 10.3390/h9030092