Original Research

Reframing hunting, gathering, tool-making and art, as expressions of evolution of consciousness as depicted in Jean Gebser’s ‘the ever-present origin’

Fritz N. Ilongo
HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies | Vol 73, No 3 | a4710 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/hts.v73i3.4710 | © 2017 Fritz N. Ilongo | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 20 June 2017 | Published: 30 November 2017

About the author(s)

Fritz N. Ilongo, Department of Theology and Religious Studies, National University of Lesotho, Lesotho

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This article explores the evolution of consciousness as directly correlated to hunting, gathering, tool-making and art. The methodology is qualitative theoretical analyses, articulated around Jean Gebser’s seminal work, The Ever-Present Origin. Hunting and gathering are expressions of a magical, unitary, ‘self-dissolving’ consciousness. Tool-making on the other hand is depicted as evolving from a mythical consciousness of duality, polarity, symbolism and a state of being qualified by ‘crystallisation of the I’. Lastly, art is a function of a consciousness of ‘self-transcendence’, ‘I and I’, idealisation and a transpersonal state of being. The article concludes by positing that hunting, gathering, tool-making and art can be reframed as ‘forms of the movement of consciousness’.


reframing; archaic; magical; mythical; mental; integral structures


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