Original Research

The role alternate states of consciousness played in the baptism and Eucharist of the earliest Jesus-followers

Jonanda Groenewald, Andries G. Van Aarde
HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies | Vol 62, No 1 | a356 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/hts.v62i1.356 | © 2006 Jonanda Groenewald, Andries G. Van Aarde | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 14 September 2006 | Published: 14 September 2006

About the author(s)

Jonanda Groenewald, Unversity of Pretoria, South Africa
Andries G. Van Aarde, University of Pretoria, South Africa

Full Text:

PDF (186KB)


In this article it is argued that the baptism and Eucharist of the earliest Jesus-followers can be better understood when contemporary knowledge with regard to alternate states of consciousness is taken into consideration. During Jesus’ baptism and all-inclusive meals, he experienced alternate states of consciousness, which can be understood as expressions of the direct influence the Spirit of God had in his life. In the rites of baptism and the Eucharist the early Jesus-followers re-enacted Jesus’ alternate states of consciousness. This re-enactment is illustrated by means of a model termed “anti-language”. The understanding of the earliest baptism and Eucharist, as described in this article, could aid contemporary Christians in experiencing these rites as being meaningful today.


No related keywords in the metadata.


Total abstract views: 3491
Total article views: 2951


Crossref Citations

1. A.G. van Aarde en historiese Jesus-navorsing
Gerrit-Daan Van der Merwe
HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies  vol: 71  issue: 3  year: 2015  
doi: 10.4102/hts.v71i3.3056